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A Journal on Sports Medicine

Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
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Medicina dello Sport 1999 June;52(2):105-17

language: English

Urinary and ser­um elec­tro­lyte chang­es in ath­letes dur­ing peri­od­ic and con­tin­u­ous restric­tion of mus­cu­lar activ­ity

Zorbas Y. G., Kakurin V. J., Denogratov S. D., Yarullin V. L.

Kosmic Biology and Medicine Institute, Krasno Selo, Sophia, Bulgaria


It was ­assumed ­that peri­od­ic hypo­ki­ne­sia (PHK) induc­es ­much great­er bio­chem­i­cal chang­es ­than con­tin­u­ous hypo­ki­ne­sia (CHK). Thus, the aim of ­this ­study was to meas­ure uri­nary and serum elec­tro­lyte chang­es dur­ing PHK and CHK in endu­rance ­trained ath­letes.
Studies ­were done dur­ing 30 ­days peri­od of pre-hypo­ki­ne­sia (PHK) and dur­ing 364 ­days of PHK and CHK peri­ods. Thirty male ath­letes ­aged 22 to 26 ­years ­were cho­sen as sub­jects. They ­were equal­ly divid­ed ­into ­three ­groups: unre­strict­ed ambu­la­to­ry con­trol sub­jects (­UACS), con­tin­u­ous­ly restrict­ed hypo­ki­net­ic sub­jects (­CHKS) and peri­od­i­cal­ly restrict­ed hypo­ki­net­ic sub­jects (­PHKS).
The ­CHKS ­group was main­tained ­under an aver­age run­ning dis­tance of 1.7 km·day-1 for 364 ­days, ­while the ­PHKS ­group was main­tained ­under an aver­age run­ning dis­tance of 1.7 and 11.7 km·­day-1 for ­five ­days and two ­days per ­week, respec­tive­ly, for 364 ­days. The ­UACS ­group was main­tained ­under an aver­age run­ning dis­tance of 11.7 km·day-1, ­that is, ­they ­were expe­ri­enced no chang­es in ­their pro­fes­sion­al train­ing and rou­tine dai­ly activ­ities.
During the pre HK peri­od and the peri­ods of CHK and PHK uri­nary and ser­um mag­ne­sium (Mg) cal­cium (Ca), sodi­um (Na) and potas­sium (K) ­were meas­ured. Plasma aldos­te­rone (PA) and plas­ma ­renin activ­ity (PRA), ser­um para­thy­roid hor­mone (PTH) and cal­cit­o­nin (CT) was ­also meas­ured. In the ­PHKS and ­CHKS ­groups uri­nary elec­tro­lyte excre­tion, and ser­um elec­tro­lyte con­cen­tra­tions ­increased sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p≤0.01) ­when com­pared ­with the ­UACS ­group. PRA and PA con­cen­tra­tion ­increased sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p≤0.01), ­while ser­um PTH and CT con­cen­tra­tion ­decreased sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p≤0.01) in the hypo­ki­net­ic sub­jects ­when com­pared ­with the con­trol sub­jects. In the ­PHKS ­group the chang­es in the meas­ured param­e­ters ­were ­much great­er and ­occurred fast­er ­than in the ­CHKS ­group; how­ev­er, no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­enc­es ­observed ­between the ­PHKS and ­CHKS ­groups regard­ing meas­ured param­e­ters. The ­UACS ­group did not ­show any sig­nif­i­cant chang­es regard­ing the cor­re­spond­ing param­e­ters ­when com­pared ­with the base­line con­trol val­ues.
It was con­clud­ed ­that ­both PHK and CHK ­induced sig­nif­i­cant uri­nary and ser­um elec­tro­lyte chang­es in ­trained ath­letes; how­ev­er, uri­nary and ser­um elec­tro­lyte chang­es ­were ­much great­er and ­much fast­er in ­PHKS ­group ­than in the ­CHKS ­group.

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