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MEDICINA DELLO SPORT
A Journal on Sports Medicine
Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,163
Medicina dello Sport 1999 June;52(2):105-17
Urinary and serum electrolyte changes in athletes during periodic and continuous restriction of muscular activity
Zorbas Y. G., Kakurin V. J., Denogratov S. D., Yarullin V. L.
Kosmic Biology and Medicine Institute, Krasno Selo, Sophia, Bulgaria
It was assumed that periodic hypokinesia (PHK) induces much greater biochemical changes than continuous hypokinesia (CHK). Thus, the aim of this study was to measure urinary and serum electrolyte changes during PHK and CHK in endurance trained athletes.
Studies were done during 30 days period of pre-hypokinesia (PHK) and during 364 days of PHK and CHK periods. Thirty male athletes aged 22 to 26 years were chosen as subjects. They were equally divided into three groups: unrestricted ambulatory control subjects (UACS), continuously restricted hypokinetic subjects (CHKS) and periodically restricted hypokinetic subjects (PHKS).
The CHKS group was maintained under an average running distance of 1.7 km·day-1 for 364 days, while the PHKS group was maintained under an average running distance of 1.7 and 11.7 km·day-1 for five days and two days per week, respectively, for 364 days. The UACS group was maintained under an average running distance of 11.7 km·day-1, that is, they were experienced no changes in their professional training and routine daily activities.
During the pre HK period and the periods of CHK and PHK urinary and serum magnesium (Mg) calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured. Plasma aldosterone (PA) and plasma renin activity (PRA), serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) was also measured. In the PHKS and CHKS groups urinary electrolyte excretion, and serum electrolyte concentrations increased significantly (p≤0.01) when compared with the UACS group. PRA and PA concentration increased significantly (p≤0.01), while serum PTH and CT concentration decreased significantly (p≤0.01) in the hypokinetic subjects when compared with the control subjects. In the PHKS group the changes in the measured parameters were much greater and occurred faster than in the CHKS group; however, no significant differences observed between the PHKS and CHKS groups regarding measured parameters. The UACS group did not show any significant changes regarding the corresponding parameters when compared with the baseline control values.
It was concluded that both PHK and CHK induced significant urinary and serum electrolyte changes in trained athletes; however, urinary and serum electrolyte changes were much greater and much faster in PHKS group than in the CHKS group.