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GAZZETTA MEDICA ITALIANA ARCHIVIO PER LE SCIENZE MEDICHE
A Journal on Internal Medicine and Pharmacology
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2013 June;172(6):471-8
Nutrient intake and blood iron status of elite Japanese karate practitioners
Miyahara K. 1, Iide K. 2, Yoshimura Y. 3, Tai K. 4, Miyamoto N. 5, Imamura H. 1
1 Depatment of Health and Nutrition Faculty of Health Management Nagasaki International University Nagasaki, Japan;
2 Department of Physical Education Faculty of Physical Education International Pacific University, Okayama, Japan;
3 Department of Food Nutrition Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition Beppu University, Oita, Japan;
4 Department of International Tourism Faculty of Human Sociology Nagasaki International University Nagasaki, Japan;
5 Department of Health and Nutrition Faculty of Health and Welfare Nishikyushu University, Saga, Japan
Aim: The purposes of this study were: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutritional practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of highly competitive Japanese karate practitioners.
Methods: The subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19 men’s sparring (M-Spar Group), 8 men’s kata (forms) (M-Kata Group), 11 women’s sparring (W-Spar Group), and 7 women’s kata practitioners (W-Kata Group).
Results: The percentage of energy from carbohydrates ranged from 55% to 59.8%, 27.6% to 31.4% from fat, and 12.7% to 14.2% from protein. The mean intakes of vitamin B1 were lower than the respective recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for all groups. The mean intakes of iron were higher in male groups but were lower in female groups than the respective RDAs. A high prevalence of hemolysis in both genders was found. However, a high prevalence of iron depletion was seen only in female athletes, while only one of the male practitioners had iron depletion.
Conclusion: It is desirable to increase the amount of meals by increasing the levels of grain, vegetables, fruit, and milk and dairy products. Dietitians need to work closely with coaches to provide sound nutritional information, as some sparring practitioners engage in practices to achieve dangerously rapid weight loss.