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GAZZETTA MEDICA ITALIANA ARCHIVIO PER LE SCIENZE MEDICHE
A Journal on Internal Medicine and Pharmacology
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2010 December;169(6):311-19
The overtraining syndrome: reflexion in skeletal muscle
Kaasik P., Seene T.
Institute of Exercise Biology and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
This review summarizes studies regarding how prolonged and excessive exercise training concurrent with other stressors and insufficient recovery lead to the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The complex of conditions which lead to the OTS associated with peripheral-cellular and central-cerebral processes, hormonal-neural regulation and transmission mechanisms are discussed. The decline in performance is related to the muscle damage and a decrease in muscle oxidative potential. This review reports on the balance between training stimulus and recovery, skeletal muscle damage and defense systems, regeneration as well as the role of reactive oxygen species, heat shock proteins and insulin-like growth factors in overtrained skeletal muscles. Attention has mainly been paid to the changes in contractile, regulatory and minor proteins in overtrained skeletal muscle.