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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Nakhostin-Roohi A., Valizadeh S.
Sport Physiology Islamic Azad University-Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran
Hookah smoking is becoming a global public health problem, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This study took place in the northwest of Iran; Islamic Azad university-Ardabil branch. Of 10433 students, 22.28% of them (n=2324) randomly participated in this study. More than a third of students (35.6%) were hookah users. Most of students used just molasses (60.0%) whereas 25.5% of students used only traditional hookah. The remaining 5.5% used both types of hookah. Majority of boys (53.7%) were café consumer whereas girls (40.3%) mostly used hookah at their own home. The major motivation of use was recreation (55.8% of girls and 70.9% of boys). Three recommended procedures to prevail the problem are to provide greater education about hazards of tobacco consumption; to promote recreational facilities; and to utilize less hazardous tobacco containing less nicotine and healthier additives.