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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1812
Khaghani S. H. 1, Nazem H. 2, Pasalar P. 1, Ansari M. 1, Eshaghi T. 1, Boushehri H. 1, Elahi S. 1, Nematzadeh S. 1, Javadi E. 1, Khayatian M. 1, Nowrouzi A. 1, Shams S. 1
1 Department of Biochemistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Payame Nour University, Tehran, Iran
Aim. Considering the role of leptin in the growth of infants, it is possible to make recommendations to improve infant diet by looking at leptin levels in mothers’ milk in the first month and recording the growth indices for the next six months in infants fedding on mothers’ milk.
Methods. Study subjects were chosen from pregnant women 6-8 weeks into pregnancy who had referred to given health centers with their consent. Questionnaires were filled after an interview and in order to determine the 24 hour diet pattern a 3 day questionnaire was completed by the subjects. The milk sample was collected in fasting condition and stored at -20 C until use. Growth indices were determined by the National Center for Health Statistics and leptin levels were measured by RIA.
Results. The average growth indices (weight, height, head circumference) for infants were normal with 0 percentile. A significant difference was observed between the above mentioned indices in the first and the last referrals (p<0.05). The leptin levels were also significantly different between the first and the last referrals (p<0.05). In the first referral the leptin level in milk was 0.59±1.05 per ml which is higher compared to other countries (0.37±0.4 per ml human milk). No significant difference was found to exist between weight, height and head circumference versus milk leptin levels nor the mother’s BMI in the first and last referrals (p<0.05). There was a significant direct relationship between mother’s BMI and leptin levels (p<0.05, r=0.298). However a significant relationship was not observed between protein, carbohydrate and fat caloric levels in the mother’s diet and the leptin levels in their milk (p<0.05).
Conclusions. Results show that breastfeeding for six months can increase leptin levels in human milk. In addition, leptin levels in the milk of Iranian women seem to be higher than women in other countries.