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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1812
Ruggiero G. 1, De Chiara O. 2, De Santis R. 2, Del Gaizo R. 1
1 Cattedra di Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale, Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena;
2 Libero professionista, Napoli
The spread of implantological techniques, the rehabilitation of severely atrophic dental arches, post-traumatic, and postdemolition malformative and reconstructional surgery require increased use of small or large quantities of bone. In small defects, it has become routine to take autologous bone from neighbouring sites; in cases of large losses of bone substance, on the other hand, the dilemma of autologous, homologous or heterologous bone has to be addressed. While autologous bone remains the first choice of graft material, because it promotes all three repair mechanisms (osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction) and because it is capable resisting septic complications better than any biomaterial, it however needs a second intervention to obtain the material from intraoral or extraoral sites. The result is: an increase in postoperative morbility (pain, haemorrhage, risk of infection, with respect to the site where the bone is obtained). Lengthening of hospitalisation. Resort to general anaesthesia in the case of an extensive extraoral bone source. We are of the opinion that the use of homologous bone can provide a whole series of advantages which are enough to make it preferable to autologous bone. Homologous bone is a material obtained from different individuals but of the same species. Its use avoids the problems involved in obtaining the bone from the patient himself and makes it possible to reduce surgicaltimes and postoperative morbility. The present paper assesses the characteristics and possibilities of using homologous bone for losses of varying extent in the oral-maxillo-facial district.