Total amount: € 0,00
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1812
Terra L. 1, Pellicanò S. 1, Calzone R. 2, Dattola O. L. 1, Mandica D. 2
1 Regione Calabria - ASL n. 5, Ospedale «S. Giovanni di Dio» - Crotone, Divisione di Malattie Infettive;
2 Regione Calabria - ASL n. 5, Ospedale «S. Giovanni di Dio» - Crotone, Dietista
Background. The etiological factors of arterial hypertension are thought to be age, race, genetic traits, obesity and dietary factors. A number of dietary factors, like sodium, potassium, caffeine, alcohol and lipids may play an important role in the etiology, treatment and prevention of the disease. Based on hemodynamic characteristics, it is possible to distinguish between stable forms of hypertension in middle age individuals, hypertension in the elderly, borderline hypertension, hypertension in the obese and in black, people. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between arterial hypertension and diet in a personal series.
Methods. Between 1994-1998, 99 patients (5%) out of a total of 2031 patients admitted to the Infectious Disease Department, of whom 36 were male and 63 female, aged between 24 and 91 years old (mean 57.5) were also diagnosed with hypertensive pathology. The criterion for inclusion in the study was the presence of arterial hypertension.
Results. Hypertensive patients were classified into two groups: those sensitive to salt with consequent hypertension following a sodium challenge and those who were not sensitive who, by eliminating more sodium in the urine, put on less weight. Sodium, alcohol and caffeine increase arterial blood pressure, whereas a potassium-rich diet helps to diminish it. Hypertension in the elderly is characterised by high total peripheral resistances which, by imposing a high post-load, accelerate the functional decline of the left ventricle, promoting the onset of cardiac decompensation. Excess fat in the diet leads to an increase in cholesterol resulting in an increased risk of coronary disease, whereas obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular complications.
Conclusions. It is essential to treat arterial hypertension using diet. Low-salt diets are an important aspect of the dietary changes that can be made. In the light of these results, it is worth stressing the importance of recording a careful dietary history in order to evaluate dietary habits and the adequacy of the patient’s diet. Adequate dietary counselling is also important for preventive reasons.