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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1812
Guido E., Mascagni E., Nannelli P., Del Grosso M.
Università degli Studi - Siena, Scuola di Specializzazione in Ortognatodonzia
Maxillo-facial anomalies appear to be remarkable in some rare malformation syndromes (craniosynostosis syndromes and malformations of the first and the second branchial arch). However, the extreme variability of the patient’s clinical phenotype complicates the diagnosis. Consequently, the objective examination plays a fundamental role: it is necessary to perfom a careful evaluation of the patients, going beyond a merely orthodontic interest and including also the evaluation of the facial area, which is not absolutely possible to leave out in order to make a correct diagnosis and plan the treatment. This literature survey has the aim to supply the dentist and, in particular, the orthodontist with a rapid and easy consultation guide on the main clinical findings observed in the malformation syndromes examined. Then, the anomalies affecting the different parts of the face (eyes, nose, cheekbones, ears, upper jaw, lower jaw, mouth) and the mechanisms that have caused them are described ; the importance of the research of the minor anomalies as signs to single out more serious conditions and to recognize malformation syndromes is emphasized. Moreover, the concept of the non-specifity of the individual alteration is underlined since the same defect can appear in different syndromes. From this study the orthodontist’s role emerges: it does not consist only in making a diagnosis of the disease but also in recognizing the small changes from normal, which sometimes, if not well appreciated, can make orthodontic therapy useless.