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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1642
AN UPDATE ON HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION
Shire N. J. 1,2, Sherman K. E. 1
1 Division of Digestive Diseases The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, ML, USA
2 Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, ML, USA
High rates of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) are commonly found in at risk populations due to their shared parenteral route of transmission. Although the increasingly widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has prolonged survival for those with HIV, it has also increased the potential for morbidity and mortality from other diseases and opportunistic infections. Liver-related illness is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those infected with HIV and HBV is responsible for a vast proportion of this, especially in regions of high HBV prevalence. HIV/HBV coinfected patients may exhibit atypical serological markers of HBV infection, hindering appropriate diagnosis. They may experience faster progression to cirrhosis, decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma than HBV-monoinfected patients. Rates of response to vaccine against HBV are abrogated in those with HIV, facilitating the spread of the virus. Treatment of HBV must be monitored for resistance, although newer agents appear to have less risk of resistance development. Moreover, treatment of HIV with antivirals must be monitored closely for liver toxicity. Because liver damage with HBV occurs via the immune response to the virus, liver damage is possible with HAART-mediated immune reconstitution. Although liver transplant is not commonly undertaken in HIV-positive patients, centers undertaking transplantation report improved survival and low rates of HBV recurrence.