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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Palmo A., Agnello E.
Nutritional management during acute pancreatitis has the purpose to avoid a negative influence on the outcome and to preserve the morphofunctional integrity of the gut, preventing bacterial translocation. When the patient would start again normal nutrition after a period shorter than a week, thanks to the resolution of the clinical picture, and when the initial nutritional state of the patient is satisfactory, a particular nutritional support is not necessary. When the course of the disease is longer and the severity is higher, an early artificial nutritional support is advisable. Caloric needs thought to be useful are 25-30 kcal/kg/die; 40-60% of nutrient mixture should consist of carbohydrates and 20-30% of lipids. Proteins should be approximately 1.0-1.5 g/kg/die. On the basis of recent randomised, prospective clinical trials, enteral jejunal feeding is indicated as a first choice nutritional way, because of its ability to maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier and its minimal effect on pancreatic secretion, acting significantly on inflammatory parameters and on prognostic markers. This procedure is not indicated when ileum is present and when it causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and an increase of hepatic enzymes. In this case, parenteral feeding is an alternative. Hydroly-sated formulas, containing short peptides and a low percentage of long chain fat acids, are recommended.