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EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE

A Journal on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Pathological Events


Official Journal of the Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER), European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM), European Union of Medical Specialists - Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Section (UEMS-PRM), Mediterranean Forum of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (MFPRM), Hellenic Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EEFIAP)
In association with International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM)
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European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2017 Mar 06

DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04664-0

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Sonographic guide for botulinum toxin injections of the upper limb: euro-musculus/USPRM spasticity approach

Murat KARA 1, Bayram KAYMAK 1, Alper M. ULAŞLI 2, Fatih TOK 3, Gokhan T. ÖZTÜRK 2, Ke-Vin CHANG 4, Ming-Yen HSİAO 4, Chen-Yu HUNG 5, Arzu YAĞIZ ON 6, Levent ÖZÇAKAR 1

1 Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3 Gaziler Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital and Community and Geriatric Research Center, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 6 Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ege University Medical School, İzmir, Turkey


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The pertinent literature lacks overt technical data for optimal upper limb muscle botulinum toxin injections using ultrasound (US) imaging. Therefore, this guide is prepared for the commonly injected muscles of the upper limb and the shoulder girdle mainly in spasticity. It includes clinical information, anatomical description and explanation regarding the US imaging of several muscles. The figures have been organized to orient the readers on the innervation zones, injection sites, probe positionings and the US images simultaneously.


KEY WORDS: Upper limb - Spasticity - Innervation zone - Ultrasound - Botulinum toxin

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Kara M, Kaymak B, Ulaşli AM, Tok F, Öztürk GT, Chang KV, et al. Sonographic guide for botulinum toxin injections of the upper limb: euro-musculus/USPRM spasticity approach. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Mar 06. DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04664-0 

Corresponding author e-mail

mkaraftr@yahoo.com