Home > Journals > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine > Past Issues > Articles online first > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2017 Mar 06

CURRENT ISSUE
 

ARTICLE TOOLS

Reprints

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE

A Journal on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Pathological Events


Official Journal of the Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER), European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM), European Union of Medical Specialists - Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Section (UEMS-PRM), Mediterranean Forum of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (MFPRM), Hellenic Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EEFIAP)
In association with International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM)
Indexed/Abstracted in: CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,063


eTOC

 

European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2017 Mar 06

DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04663-9

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Innervation zone targeted botulinum toxin injections

Bayram KAYMAK 1, Murat KARA 1 , Arzu YAĞIZ-ON 2, Abdullah R. SOYLU 3, Levent ÖZÇAKAR 1

1 Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Ege University Medical School, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, İzmir, Turkey; 3 Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Biophysics, Ankara, Turkey


FULL TEXT  


Muscle overactivity (spasticity, dystonia or spasm) seen in certain neuromuscular disorders has been effectively treated with intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoTXs). Since they act in the nerve terminals, the toxin must be transported to the neuromuscular junctions which are generally clustered in one or more restricted areas (innervations zone(s)) in a skeletal muscle. The innervation zone targeted BoTX injections using guidance is highly recommended to achieve an optimal therapeutic goal with lower doses and fewer side effects. Hence, detection of the injection sites should be based on the knowledge about the localization of the innervation zone and the transport mechanism of BoTX in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we discuss the relevant muscle architecture and physical principles as regards BoTX distribution during muscle overactivity management.


KEY WORDS: Spasticity - Dystonia - Innervation zone - Neuromuscular junction - Botulinum toxin

top of page

Publication History

Cite this article as

Corresponding author e-mail

mkaraftr@yahoo.com