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Indexed/Abstracted in: CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Pernilla Y. ACKERMARK 1, 3, Vera P. SCHEPERS 1, Marcel W.POST 1, Gabriel J. RINKEL 2, Patricia E. PASSIER 1, Johanna M. VISSER-MEILY 1
1 Brain Center Rudolf Magnus and Centre of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht and Rehabilitation Center De Hoogstraat, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2 Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3 Merem, Rehabilitation Centre De Trappenberg, Huizen, The Netherlands
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are present in almost half of the patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but the long-term course is unknown.
AIM: To study the longitudinal course and predictors of symptoms of anxiety and depression after aSAH.
METHODS: Patients visiting our outpatient clinic 3 months after aSAH and living independently in the community completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II-NL and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 3 months (T1), one year (T2) and 2-5 years (T3). Potential predictors were collected at T1.
RESULTS: Complete datasets from 93 patients were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were present in 39% (T1), 41% (T2) and 54% (T3) of patients, symptoms of anxiety in 52% (T1), 48% (T2) and 53% (T3). Of patients with depressive symptoms at T1, 72% still had symptoms at T3, compared to 67% for anxiety. Disability on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), passive coping (UCL-PR) and depressive symptoms at T1 were significantly independent variables explaining 52% of the variance of depressive symptoms at T2. GOS and UCL-PR at T1 were variables explaining 25% of the variance of depressive symptoms at T3. Depressive symptoms and anxiety at T1 were predictive variables for anxiety at T2 (explained variance 43%) and UCL-PR for anxiety at T3 (explained variance 21%).
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety remained high during the first 2-5 years after aSAH. Passive coping at 3 months after aSAH was the most consistent predictor of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the long term.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Since many patients who are initially free of symptoms of depression and anxiety develop such symptoms over time, we advocate screening for these symptoms and coping strategies to identify these patients and apply targeted therapy.