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Benedetti M. G. 1, Ginex V. 2, Mariani E. 1, Zati A. 1, Cotti A. 1, Pignotti E. 3, Clerici F. 2, 4
1 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy;
2 Department of Neurorehabilitation Sciences, Casa Cura Policlinico, Milan, Italy;
3 Department of Statistical Science “Paolo Fortunati”, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy;
4 Centre for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions,“L. Sacco” Hospital, Milan, Italy
BACKGROUND: Subjects with severe cognitive impairment (CI) have a high-risk of hip fractures with increased rate of adverse postoperative functional outcomes and mortality.
AIM: To evaluate the impact of different degrees of CI on functional recovery and mortality after hip fracture.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
SETTING: Two orthopedic surgery units.
POPULATION: Two hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients after a hip surgery.
METHODS: Patients were assessed at baseline through the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), an instrument that allows to categorize subjects as follows: cognitively intact (SPMSQ≥8) or with mild (SPMSQ=6-7), moderate (SPMSQ=3-5) and severe CI (SPMSQ<3). Barthel Index (BI) was used to assess functional disability. All patients underwent rehabilitation from the day after surgery to discharge (mean length of stay =10.2±3.4). Outcome measures were: 1) overall mortality up to 12 months after surgery; 2) motor ability achieved at discharge from the orthopedic ward (sitting, standing, walking); 3) BI and SPMSQ at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively.
RESULTS: All degrees of severity of CI were inversely correlated to the ability to walk at hospital discharge. At one year from surgery, the majority of patients with CI were functionally severely dependent, whereas about half of the cognitively intact ones gained a functional independence status. CI and the level of premorbid disability influenced the risk of death.
CONCLUSION: CI for all degrees of severity is a negative prognostic factor in elderly patients with hip fracture.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: We suggest evaluating the cognitive status of patients with hip fracture as it affects both the short and long-term functional recovery at any degree of severity.