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EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE
A Journal on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Pathological Events
Official Journal of the , , , ,
In association with
Indexed/Abstracted in: CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,063
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2011 June;47(2):213-21
Equinus foot classification in cerebral palsy: an agreement study between clinical and gait analysis assessment
Benedetti M. G. 1, D’Apote G. 1, Faccioli S. 2, Costi S. 3, Ferrari A. 2,3 ✉
1 Movement Analysis Laboratory, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
2 Children Rehabilitation Unit, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia, Italy
3 LAMBDA , (Laboratorio Analisi del Movimento nel Bambino DisAbile), Neuroscience Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
BACKGROUND: Excessive ankle plantar flexion (equinus foot) is a common problem in cerebral palsy (CP) and several treatment options can be considered depending on the equinus type. Few attempts have been made to classify different forms of equinus foot for specific treatment.
AIM: This study is aimed at defining equinus foot types in CP patients according to the Ferrari classification, integrating clinical and instrumental assessments. The hypothesis is that clinical differentiation of equinus foot can be evidenced by recurrent anomalies identifiable through gait analysis (GA), which can make the assessment, usually based only on clinician semeiotics, more objective. DESIGN:Clinical and instrumental assessments were performed separately by a senior CP physiatrist and a senior GA physiatrist, the latter was blind to the clinical diagnosis of equinus type.
POPULATION:Twenty patients, 16 diplegics and 4 hemiplegics (mean age 11 years, SD 4 years 11 months).
METHODS:Clinical assessment by means of Modified Ashworth Scale, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Observational Gait Analysis (OGA), and measurement of lower limb muscle strength by dynamometer were used to classify the equinus type. Gait analysis assessed the kinematics and EMG of affected lower limbs.
RESULTS: Ten different equinus types were identified. Since various forms of equinus can be present in the same patient, we were able to classify a total of 61 types of equinus in 36 feet. Substantial agreement was found between Clinical and Gait Analysis equinus assignment matched in 50 out of 61 types (Index of agreement with Fleiss’ Kappa 79.3 % ). In some case only Gait Analysis was able to identify the equinus type, while in others it did not confirm clinical assignment.
CONCLUSION: Gait analysis is able to distinguish different equinus types according to Ferrari classification, making the clinical decision less arbitrary.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Correct objective diagnosis of equinus foot in CP patients is of paramount importance when choosing suitable rehabilitative interventions.