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EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE
A Journal on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Pathological Events
Official Journal of the , , , ,
In association with
Indexed/Abstracted in: CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,063
REVIEWS UPPER MOTOR NEURON SYNDROME: EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF SPASTICITY
Guest Editor: FRANCO MOLTENI
Europa Medicophysica 2004 June;40(2):145-56
Neuro-orthopedic management of the dysfunctional extremity in upper motor neuron syndromes
Hebela N., Keenan M. A. E.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Orthopedic surgery can help restore extremity function to many patients with upper motor neuron syndromes (UMN). Impairments are divided into those that cause problems with the active function of the extremity versus those that impede passive function. Limb deformities commonly result from both dynamic (spastic) and static (contractural) components. Clinical examination supplemented with dynamic electromyographic studies provides the optimal information for planning the most effective surgical procedures. In the upper extremity, selective lengthening of the shoulder adductors and extensors combined with elbow flexor lengthening can improve forward reach. Lengthening of the forearm pronators and finger flexors will improve hand use. In the lower extremity, standing balance is improved with widening the base of support by correcting hip adduction contractures and equinovarus foot deformities. Improvement of knee flexion during swing phase by a rectus femoris to gracilis transfer will enhance the fluidity and efficiency of walking. Correction of hip and knee flexion contractures will allow a upright posture and dramatically decrease the energy requirement of walking.