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Official Journal of the Italian Society of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,014
Online ISSN 1827-1820
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AND DISEASES: OLD AND NEW CHALLENGES - PART I
Zuccati G., Tiradritti L., Lorenzoni E., Giomi B., Mastrolorenzo A.
Unit of Dermatology, Department of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Proctitis is a common problem and is most frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, in the last ten years the incidence of infectious proctitis appears to be rising, especially in men who have sex with men. This may be due to the rise of people participating in receptive anal sex as well as the increase in sexually transmitted infections, such as those from Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Herpes simplex virus and Treponema pallidum. Recent outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum among homosexual men throughout Europe highlight the need to consider sexually transmitted infections in the differential diagnosis of proctitis. Symptoms of infectious proctitis can include rectal blood and mucous discharge, anorectal pain, aphtous ulcers and, sometimes, generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. A carefull history and physical examination are crucial in establishing a diagnosis, eventually supported by endoscopy, histology, serology, culture and PCR. Treatment with antibiotics or antivirals is usually initiated, either empirically or after establishing a diagnosis. Coinfections, HIV testing, and treatment of sexual partners should always be considered.