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A Journal on Surgery


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Chirurgia 2015 June;28(3):103-17

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The treatment of cranio-facial defects is often a complex matter

Stimolo M. 1, Meloni S. M. 2, Ligas E. 3, Soma D. 4, De Riu G. 1

1 UOC Chirurgia Maxillo‑Facciale, Dipartimento Scienze Chirurgiche Microchirurgiche e Mediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italia;
2 Clinica Odontoiatrica, Dipartimento Scienze Chirurgiche Microchirurgiche e Mediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italia;
3 UO Comparto Operatorio, Azienda Ospedaliero‑Universitaria di Sassari, Sassari, Italia;
4 Scuola di Specializzazione in Chirurgia Maxillo‑Facciale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italia

The treatment of cranio-facial defects is often a complex matter. Different biomaterials and prostheses have been proposed over the years for cranio-facial reconstruction, in order to achieve the best clinical outcome for the patient. In this review, the advantages and limitations of the different proposed and tested biomaterials for the reconstruction of the craniofacial regions are critically reviewed and discussed, searching the “ideal” implant that will eventually materialize in the coming years. A systematic review of the literature was performed in order to analyze and evaluate the clinical results obtained with the use of various implant materials available for craniofacial reconstruction. There is no biomaterial yet considered the gold, ideal standard for all the craniofacial reconstruction, but several options are available to the surgeon. The choice is influenced by many factors, including the specific features of the defect, the intrinsic characteristics of the implant, the clinical history of the patient, the possible complications and the cost. The choosing criteria of the optimal implant material are quite empirical. The development of a standard protocol to guide in the decision-making process would be desirable in order to minimize the possible complications and further improve the quality of life of the patient.

language: Italian


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