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MEDICINA E CHIRURGIA DELLA CAVIGLIA E DEL PIEDE
A Journal on Physiopathology and Surgery of the Foot
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Scopus
Chirurgia Del Piede 2004 March;28(1):9-12
Ball-and-socket ankle, an enarthrodial structuring of the normally trochlear joint, is attributed essentially to a possible pathogenetic hypothesis: it is considered by some as a deformity of atavic type or a deformity that has adapted to another foot pathology; its elective presence in association with complete talo-calcaneal fusion or, in any case, to other synostoses, to longitudinal foot and/or leg hemimelia highlights a malformative pathogenesis for a rare noxa occurring at the distal segment of the apical crest in the very earliest periods of embryonal life (2nd and 3rd week). Further modifications of adaptive type and concomitant malformations in the course of morphogenetic evolution may contribute to definition of the picture.