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MEDICINA E CHIRURGIA DELLA CAVIGLIA E DEL PIEDE
A Journal on Physiopathology and Surgery of the Foot
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Scopus
Chirurgia Del Piede 2002 June;26(2):73-82
Evolution of torsion mechanisms of the lower limb
Skeletal torsion mechanisms of the lower limbis, a human characteristic in morphogenetic evolution and segmental torsion (femur, tibia, talus), which is more pronounced in anthropomorphic races and tied to the upright stance, define the morphological characteristics and biomechanical relationships that are fundamental for antigravity and the normality of the declination talar angle. This leads to anatomo-functional compaction of the lower limb in divided into hip, knee and foot, also considering that the segmental torsion aspect influences the range of suprasegmental rotations that act horizontally on the completion of lower limb kinetics. After reviewing ontomorphogenetic features of the lower limb, the authors discuss torsion of the femur, tibia and talus. Physiological angles vary widely and can only be estimated. Many factors play a role in femoral detorsion in the evolution of their mechanism, including muscle action and those of genetic and mechanical nature among others. Torsion defects of the lower limb are often the cause for orthopedic consultation, especially in pediatrics. An understanding of the evolution of torsion mechanisms is therefore essential for prognostic evaluation. The differentiation between torsion and rotation in determining convergent strabismus of the patella, for example, is important because it can be found in torsion defects such as femoral neck antiversion or in distal rotatory dislocations caused by foot deformities such as cavus-valgus.