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THE JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
A Journal on Cardiac, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,632
The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2016 Mar 24
Mitral regurgitation after previous aortic valve surgery for bicuspid aortic valve insufficiency
Evaldas GIRDAUSKAS 1, Kushtrim DISHA 2, Andres ESPINOZA 2, Martin MISFELD 3, Hermann REICHENSPURNER 1, Michael A. BORGER 4, Thomas KUNTZE 2 ✉
1 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany; 2 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center, Central Hospital Bad Berka, Germany; 3 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center Leipzig, Germany; 4 Division of Cardiac, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA
BACKGROUND: Regurgitant bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) are reported to be associated with myxomatous degeneration of the anterior mitral leaflet. We examined the risk of late new-onset mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients who underwent aortic valve/ aortic root surgery for BAV regurgitation and concomitant root dilatation.
METHODS: A total of 97 consecutive patients (47±11 years, 94% men) were identified from our institutional BAV database (n=640) based on the following criteria: (1) BAV regurgitation; (2) aortic root diameter >40 mm; (3) no relevant mitral valve disease (i.e., MR<2+) and no simultaneous mitral intervention at the time of BAV surgery. All patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR subgroup, n=59) or aortic root replacement with a composite graft (i.e., for root aneurysm >50 mm) (ARR subgroup, n=38) from 1995 through 2008. Echocardiographic follow-up (1009 patient-years) was obtained for all 96 (100%) hospital survivors. The primary endpoint was freedom from new-onset MR>2+ and redo mitral valve surgery.
RESULTS: Nine patients (9.4%) showed new-onset MR>2+ after mean echocardiographic follow-up of 10.4±4.0 years postoperatively. Myxomatous degeneration and prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet was found in all 9 patients, and the posterior leaflet was involved in 3 of them. Two patients (2%) in AVR subgroup underwent re-do mitral surgery. No MR>2+ occurred in ARR subgroup. Freedom from MR>2+ or mitral surgery at 15 years was significantly lower in AVR subgroup vs. ARR subgroup (i.e., 38% vs. 100%, p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of new-onset MR is significantly increased in patients with BAV regurgitation and aortic root dilatation who undergo isolated AVR rather than root replacement. The mechanism by which aortic root replacement may prevent the occurrence of late MR in BAV root phenotype patients is to be determined.