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Wilbring M., Alexiou K., Tuan Nguyen M., Kappert U., Matschke K., Malte Tugtekin S.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Heart Center, Dresden, Germany
Aim: Isolated mitral valve endocarditis (MVE) forms a particular subgroup within native infective valve endocarditis (NVE). We characterized this particular subgroup and analyzed the course of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Methods: Between 1997 and 2011, 474 patients underwent cardiac surgery at our institution for NVE treatment. Of these, 89 patients (18.8%) suffered from MVE. Valve replacement was undertaken in 84.2% and valve repair in 15.8%. Follow-up was completed with 267 patient years.
Results: A delay between the onset of first symptoms and surgery of 4.7±1.2 weeks was observed. Hence, most patients were in a critical preoperative state characterized by severe sepsis and destruction of the mitral valve. About 19.4% were emergency procedures. The MVE group presented with a higher prevalence of preoperative stroke, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in comparison with remaining NVE cases. MVE was more likely caused by Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus viridans were less frequent (P<0.01 each). Early mortality (6.7%) was caused by persistent sepsis. ICU stay >7 days and time on artificial ventilation >40 h led to a higher risk of in-hospital death. Five-year survival was 59.6% and affected by extracardiac comorbidities.
Conclusion: Isolated MVE was characterized by a long delay before surgery, differences in microbiological findings and a higher prevalence of preoperative strokes in comparison to NVE. Surgery for MVE can be conducted with good clinical results, but mid-term outcome is limited by extracardiac comorbidities.