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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,632
Online ISSN 1827-191X
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE STROKE
Leonardo RANGEL-CASTILLA 1, 2, Kenneth V. SNYDER 1-5, Adnan H. SIDDIQUI 1-3, 5, 6, Elad I. LEVY 1-3, 5, Nelson L. HOPKINS 1-3, 5, 6
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3 Department of Radiology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4 Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 5 Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 6 Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of long-term disability and the second cause of death worldwide. Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only FDA-approved treatment for AIS. The use of IV tPA in AIS related to large-vessel occlusion (LVO) has shown low recanalization rates and poor clinical outcomes. Over the last decade, endovascular treatment has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in the management of LVO-associated AIS due to the evolution of endovascular techniques and technologies, beginning with intraarterial thrombolysis, aspiration, self-expanding intracranial stents, and now retrievable stents. With the recent publication of the results of five randomized controlled studies, mechanical thrombectomy in combination with IV tPA demonstrated significant radiographic and clinical benefit over traditional strategies with IV tPA alone. In light of these results, endovascular therapy has been placed at the forefront of stroke treatment, redefining the standard of care. This review presents the evolution of endovascular treatment of AIS resulting from LVO; provides an analysis of the initial and latest RCTs; and discusses the association between endovascular mechanical thrombectomy and clinical outcomes, functional outcomes, and rates of revascularization, intracranial hemorrhage, morbidity, and mortality. Finally, shortcomings of the recent technological advances, such as clot fragmentation, and potential solutions to overcome these drawbacks are presented.