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A Journal on Cardiac, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery

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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2014 April;55(2):217-24

language: English

Paclitaxel-coated balloons for failing peripheral bypass grafts: the BYPACS study

Kitrou P. 1, Parthipun A. 1, Diamantopoulos A. 1, Padayachee S. 2, Karunanithy N. 1, Ahmed I. 1, Zayed H. 3, Katsanos K. 1

1 Department of Interventional Radiology Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust King’s Health Partners, London, UK;
2 Department of Vascular Angiology Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust King’s Health Partners, London, UK;
3 Department of Vascular Surgery Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust King’s Health Partners, London, UK


AIM: Aim of the present study was to report the imaging and clinical outcomes of a prospective single-center study investigating paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) for the treatment of failing peripheral bypass grafts (BYPACS study).
METHODS: In total, 32 patients had their failing peripheral native or synthetic bypass graft treated with PCB angioplasty (Group PCB). Basic inclusion criteria were any significant proximal or distal anastomotic stenosis confirmed by Duplex ultrasound (DUS; PSVR>2.5) associated with significantly reduced in-graft velocities (<45 cm/s) putting the graft at risk of thrombosis. Results were compared with a similar historical control group of 24 patients who had their failing peripheral bypass treated with plain uncoated balloon angioplasty (Group PTA). Primary endpoint was binary lesion restenosis defined as >50% stenosis of the treated lesion on DUS. Secondary endpoints included freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) defined as a patent peripheral bypass graft regardless of restenosis but without any repeat intervention (driven by reduced in-graft velocities <45 cm/s), major amputations and graft thrombosis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to adjust for confounding factors of heterogeneity. Results are reported as Cox-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% CI).
RESULTS: Baseline variables were equally distributed between the two groups. Median follow-up was 7 months in group PCB and 8 months in group PTA. Rates of binary restenosis were similar between the 2 groups (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.49-2.40; P=0.84). Freedom from TLR was also similar (HR=0.97, 95% CI=0.36-2.66; P=0.88). One amputation occurred in the PCB group and 2 in the PTA (P=0.58). Four events of bypass thrombosis occurred in each group (P=0.71).
CONCLUSION: PCB does not significantly inhibit restenosis or improve freedom from repeat angioplasty after treatment of failing peripheral arterial vein or synthetic bypass grafts.

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