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A Journal on Cardiac, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery

Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,632

Frequency: Bi-Monthly

ISSN 0021-9509

Online ISSN 1827-191X


The journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2004 December;45(6):535-44



Intermittent aortic cross-clamping for coronary artery bypass grafting: a review of a safe, fast, simple, and successful techniqu

Korbmacher B. 1, Simic O. 2, Schulte H. D. 1, Sons H. 3, Schipke H. J. D. 1

1 Clinic of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany
2 Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
3 Clinic of Cardiovascular Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Kassel, Germany

Since the very beginning of coronary artery bypass grafting, the search for optimal myocardial protection has fascinated both clinicians and basic researchers. This retrospective review of a large patient cohort aims to display the advantages of one of the protective procedures, namely simple, intermittent aortic cross-clamping (IAC). Thus, this review aims to significantly contribute to daily bypass surgery. This review reports on coronary patients who were all operated on in international centers using IAC such that this review presents the state of the art on IAC. In addition, this review reports on the usage of IAC for more than 2 decades in the clinic of Dr. Bircks, Duesseldorf (DE) and the clinics of his former students. A meta-analysis of published data of international centers summarizes 7 837 operated patients with a total mortality of 123 (=1.6%). This excellent outcome compares well to the results of the Bircks’-related centers, where between 1978 and 2001, a total of 41 573 patients were revascularized with the help of IAC according to the original protocol. The total mortality was 778 (1.9%), with the lowest mortality rate (1.2%) in the largest center (Bad Oeynhausen, DE). According to the presented experience, IAC for coronary revascularization proves to be a highly effective method for myocardial protection; it has convincingly proven to be simple, safe and cost-efficient.

language: English


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