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THE JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
A Journal on Cardiac, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,632
ORIGINAL ARTICLES THORACIC SECTION
The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2002 August;43(4):531-7
Trimodality treatment versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. A stratified analysis with minimally invasive pretreatment staging
Jiao X. 1, Sonett J. 1, Gamliel Z. 1, Doyle A. 2, Schuetz J. 1, Greenwald B. 3, Suntharalingam M. 4, Krasna M. J. 1
1 Division of Thoracic Surgery
2 Division of Hematology/Oncology
3 Division of Gastrointestinal Medicine
4 Department of Radiation Oncology
University of Maryland Medical System Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Background. Accurate pretreatment staging of esophageal cancer (EC) is important in the evaluation and comparison of results of different treatment modalities. Few studies using minimally invasive staging techniques for this purpose have been reported. We previously demonstrated the usefulness of the thoracoscopic/laparoscopic (Ts/Ls) technique in pretreatment staging of EC. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of trimodality based on pretreatment Ts/Ls staging diagnosis on EC.
Methods. A retrospective study was performed on 2 groups of EC patients. Group A (44 patients) underwent pretreatment Ts/Ls staging and had trimodality treatment. Preoperative therapy consisted of concurrent chemotherapy (5-FU + cisplatinum) and radiotherapy. Group B (33 patients) underwent surgery alone. The study focused on stratified comparison of patterns of recurrence and survival in different pretreatment surgical T, N, and TNM stage categories.
Results. The 3-year disease free survival of Group A was 40.8% with a median survival of 32.0 months, it was 43.6% with a median survival of 23.6 months in Group B. The difference was not significant (p=0.87). There was no difference in recurrence pattern between the 2 groups. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma in Group A had no local recurrence during the follow-up period while those in Group B had a high local recurrence rate of 40% (p<0.005). When stratified by T factor, patients with locally advanced T stage (T3-4) in Group A had a lower distant recurrence rate than their counterpart patients in Group B (9.1 vs 38.5%, p=0.03), they had a better survival but the difference was not significant (3-year disease free survival: 41.7 vs 17.9%, p=0.14). There were no significant differences in recurrence pattern and survival in different N categories and TNM stages between 2 groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only pretreatment surgical N status was an independent prognostic factor for the whole group (p=0.02).
Conclusions. Pretreatment Ts/Ls staging can provide accurate staging information for EC patients. Trimodality treatment was successful in local control for patients with squamous cell carcinoma. It was effective in reducing distant recurrence and might prolong survival in patients with advanced T stages. Pretreatment lymph node status was the most important prognosticator regardless of treatment modality. Pretreatment pathological staging should be included in the future clinical trials on multimodality treatments in EC patients.