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Hopital Saint Joseph, Paris, France
The venous system consists of various aspects, biological, anatomic and hemodynamic that provide an appropriate venous function, i.e., drainage of the tissues, thermoregulation and heart preload feeding. The draining function and vein volume control depend on the correct balance of the transmural pressure at the micro and macro venous bed. Its impairment is the central cause of the venous disease that can be due to various anomalies of the valves, the venous conduit and its wall, the venous pumps, related to congenital malformations or to secondary mechanic and biologic disorders. Despite crucial, the hemodynamic aspect has been for a long time underestimated, partly because of the lack of deep investigation means. To-day, after invasive pressure measurements, venography and plethysmography, DUS has provided an invaluable tool that allowed a dramatic progress in its knowledge and understanding.