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Bavera P. M. 1, Mendozzi L.2, Cavarretta R. 2, Agus G. B. 3
1 Vascular Surgery and Angiology Service, Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy
2 Neurology and Multiple Sclerosis Ward, Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Milan, Italy
3 Section of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Department of Specialist Surgical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
The article concerns an observational study subsequent to 560 Duplex ultrasound (DU) exams on multiple sclerosis affected patients. The aim of the study was to find out, after the so-called “Zamboni Theory”, if there may be any correlations between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). All the patients had a certain diagnosis for MS and all exams were carried out, with a group of control in non-MS patients, by the same operator using two similar but different brand Duplex devices following the same procedure. The aim was to find any possible malformation in the extracranial venous cerebral outflow, mainly concerning the internal jugular vein and vertebral plexus system. Outflow malformations due to significantly reduced vein diameter and/or valve flaps were seeked both in horizontal and upright position. The results were interesting considering the constant presence of venous outflow problems in a significant number of patients affected by SM disease. The diagnosis percentage happened to be very similar, and significant, using either DU devices.