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Online ISSN 1827-1766
Prakash 1, Prabhu L. V. 1, Rai R. 1, Madyastha S. 1, Kumar A. 2, Singh G. 3
1 Department of Anatomy Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Orthopedics Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Aim. This cadaveric study aims to report various arrangements of jugular veins in the head and neck region, keeping in view the wider applications of jugular veins for different diagnostic and therapeutic indications.
Methods. Both sides of the head and neck region in 16 adult embalmed human cadavers of both sexes were dissected and examined for arrangement of jugular veins in the department of Anatomy.
Results. Besides the common arrangement, two typical variations in different cadavers both on the right side were observed. Along with several other venous variations in the region, the posterior division of the retromandibular vein continued as external jugular vein obliquely, at first superficial and then deep to sternocleidomastoid to open into internal jugular vein along its midpoint in the neck.
Conclusion. These variations of jugular veins should be considered before recording venous pressure, and for establishing intravenous catheterization and transjugular procedures, such as port implantations and the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or selective venous blood samplings. In lower animals, where the veins from face drain into the external jugular vein, the internal jugular vein is usually absent or present as small vessel accompanying the carotid artery. Hence, the pattern of venous arrangement in aforementioned two cases reflects the future trend of evolution regarding the arrangement of jugulars veins in man of modern era.